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What the words mean

A list of defined words commonly used in taekwondo competition.

Ahob: Nine in Korean.

Ahp cha-gi: A front kick

Alert area: The red area of the mat outside the contest area.

Alert line: The unmarked border on the mat between the contest area and the alert area.

Baal: Korean for foot

Boundary line: The unmarked line around the outside of the competition area, defining the outer edge of the mat.

Cha-gi: A kick.

Charyeot (cha-RUT): Means attention. Before a match begins, the referee commands both contestants to charyeot.

Chi-gi: A punch.

Chung: The competitor wearing blue.

Competition area: The entire 12-metre-square mat, including the contest area and the alert area.

Contest area: An eight-metre blue square in the centre of the mat in which a taekwondo contest is conducted.

Counting: In the event of a knockdown, the referee will count from one to 10 to give the downed athlete time to recover. Counting is done in Korean.

Dari: Korean for leg

Dasot (da-sot): Five in Korean.

Deuk-jeom: A point.

Dobok: The uniform worn by competitors.

Dolryo cha-gi: A round kick.

Dul (dool): Two in Korean.

Dung-joomock chi-gi: A back fist punch.

Dwi cha-gi: A back kick.

Elgub (EEL-gop): Seven in Korean.

Eolgul: Korean for face.

Gam-Jeom: A deduction penalty resulting in the loss of a point. A deduction of three points means the offending competitor is disqualified.

Guligi cha-gi: A hook kick.

Guligi chi-gi: A hook punch.

Gyoroogi: Sparring or competing against an opponent. This is what is practiced during the Olympic Games.

Hana (ha-NA): One in Korean.

Hogu: A padded chest protector. In international competition, the hogus must be marked red (chung) or blue (hong).

Hong: The competitor wearing red.

Jeon: One round of competition.

Jeum: A point scored during competition.

Joomock: Korean for fist

Joon-bi: The referee's command to get ready to start the contest.

Kal-yeo: The referee's command to break or move away from a downed opponent.

Keu-man: The referee's command to stop the contest.

Knockdown: The ruling made when a competitor is knocked to the floor or is deemed unable to continue.

Knockout: A ruling in which the referee stops the contest and declares a contestant the winner if his or her opponent cannot continue.

Kye-shi: The referee's command to suspend the match while a fighter receives first aid.

Kye-sok: The referee's command to continue.

Kyeong-rye: The referee's command to bow. Contestants bow to each other and to the officials before and after the match.

Kyong-go (kung-GO): A warning penalty issued by the referee. Two such penalties result in the deduction of one point.

Me-joomok chi-gi: A hammer fist punch.

Mok: Korean for neck.

Mo-li: Korean for head.

Momtong: Korean for the middle part of the body or trunk.

Moo-rup: Korean for knee.

Net: Four in Korean.

Palmmock: Korean for forearm.

Pyon-joomock chi-gi: A knuckle fist punch.

Referee's mark: A marked point on the mat where the referee begins and ends each round.

Scoring area: The area of the opponent's face or body that a competitor may strike to score a point.

Set: Three in Korean.

Shi-gan: The referee's command to suspend the match for reasons other than medical assistance.

Shi-jak: The referee's command to start the contest.

Sob-nal chi-gi: A knife hand punch.

Son: Korean for hand.

Sonmock: Korean for wrist.

Su-bak: A self-defence art practised in Korea 800 years ago, one of the predecessors of taekwondo.

Sudden death: A method of resolving a tie in a gold-medal match that sees opponents fight a fourth round in which the first person to score is the winner.

Taekwondo: A modern form of martial art meaning "way of hands and feet." Descended from ancient Korean martial arts.

Twi-o cha-gi: A jumping kick

Yasot (ya-SOT): Six in Korean.

Yeol: Ten in Korean, indicating the end of a full count and, hence, a knockout.

Yeo-dul: Eight in Korean, ending the mandatory eight-count a downed contestant must take even if he wants to resume sparring.

Yop cha-gi: A side kick.

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