What the words mean
Ahob: Nine in Korean.
Ahp cha-gi: A front kick
Alert area: The red area of the mat outside the contest area.
Alert line: The unmarked border on the mat between the contest area and the alert area.
Baal: Korean for foot
Boundary line: The unmarked line around the outside of the competition area, defining the outer edge of the mat.
Cha-gi: A kick.
Charyeot (cha-RUT): Means attention. Before a match begins, the referee commands both contestants to charyeot.
Chi-gi: A punch.
Chung: The competitor wearing blue.
Competition area: The entire 12-metre-square mat, including the contest area and the alert area.
Contest area: An eight-metre blue square in the centre of the mat in which a taekwondo contest is conducted.
Counting: In the event of a knockdown, the referee will count from one to 10 to give the downed athlete time to recover. Counting is done in Korean.
Dari: Korean for leg
Dasot (da-sot): Five in Korean.
Deuk-jeom: A point.
Dobok: The uniform worn by competitors.
Dolryo cha-gi: A round kick.
Dul (dool): Two in Korean.
Dung-joomock chi-gi: A back fist punch.
Dwi cha-gi: A back kick.
Elgub (EEL-gop): Seven in Korean.
Eolgul: Korean for face.
Gam-Jeom: A deduction penalty resulting in the loss of a point. A deduction of three points means the offending competitor is disqualified.
Guligi cha-gi: A hook kick.
Guligi chi-gi: A hook punch.
Gyoroogi: Sparring or competing against an opponent. This is what is practiced during the Olympic Games.
Hana (ha-NA): One in Korean.
Hogu: A padded chest protector. In international competition, the hogus must be marked red (chung) or blue (hong).
Hong: The competitor wearing red.
Jeon: One round of competition.
Jeum: A point scored during competition.
Joomock: Korean for fist
Joon-bi: The referee's command to get ready to start the contest.
Kal-yeo: The referee's command to break or move away from a downed opponent.
Keu-man: The referee's command to stop the contest.
Knockdown: The ruling made when a competitor is knocked to the floor or is deemed unable to continue.
Knockout: A ruling in which the referee stops the contest and declares a contestant the winner if his or her opponent cannot continue.
Kye-shi: The referee's command to suspend the match while a fighter receives first aid.
Kye-sok: The referee's command to continue.
Kyeong-rye: The referee's command to bow. Contestants bow to each other and to the officials before and after the match.
Kyong-go (kung-GO): A warning penalty issued by the referee. Two such penalties result in the deduction of one point.
Me-joomok chi-gi: A hammer fist punch.
Mok: Korean for neck.
Mo-li: Korean for head.
Momtong: Korean for the middle part of the body or trunk.
Moo-rup: Korean for knee.
Net: Four in Korean.
Palmmock: Korean for forearm.
Pyon-joomock chi-gi: A knuckle fist punch.
Referee's mark: A marked point on the mat where the referee begins and ends each round.
Scoring area: The area of the opponent's face or body that a competitor may strike to score a point.
Set: Three in Korean.
Shi-gan: The referee's command to suspend the match for reasons other than medical assistance.
Shi-jak: The referee's command to start the contest.
Sob-nal chi-gi: A knife hand punch.
Son: Korean for hand.
Sonmock: Korean for wrist.
Su-bak: A self-defence art practised in Korea 800 years ago, one of the predecessors of taekwondo.
Sudden death: A method of resolving a tie in a gold-medal match that sees opponents fight a fourth round in which the first person to score is the winner.
Taekwondo: A modern form of martial art meaning "way of hands and feet." Descended from ancient Korean martial arts.
Twi-o cha-gi: A jumping kick
Yasot (ya-SOT): Six in Korean.
Yeol: Ten in Korean, indicating the end of a full count and, hence, a knockout.
Yeo-dul: Eight in Korean, ending the mandatory eight-count a downed contestant must take even if he wants to resume sparring.
Yop cha-gi: A side kick.