Why the 'Indians of Canada Pavilion' at Expo 67 still matters
In the midst of Centennial celebrations, one exhibit resisted Canada's familiar, comfortable story
If you weren't around for Expo 67, you may not get why Montreal's world fair was a big deal for 100-year-old Canada. Well, consider this: Expo attracted 50 million visitors to a country of 20 million people in the golden age of PR. This was a young country's chance to put its best face forward.
But there was one pavilion that wanted to tell a more nuanced story.
The Indians of Canada Pavilion — a name that didn't age well — was just one of over 100 pavilions at Expo 67, but its impacts on Canada-Indigenous relations, the art world and the people who attended and participated still linger to this day.
In part one of a two-part series, Falen takes Leah on a minirail tour around the Expo 67 grounds. We learn a bit about the lead up to the world's fair and the fraught planning process.
- A general layout of the fair and some of the many countries and global figures in attendance, from Jackie Kennedy to James Baldwin to the Queen.
- Some lighter fare, from the story of how an ashtray inspired the Canada Pavilion to the foul-mouthed parrot that had to be escorted from the grounds.
- How groups like the National Indian Council, The Indian Expo Task Force and others started planning the Indians of Canada Pavilion, which stood apart from the Canada Pavilion
- Why legendary Anishinaabe artist Norval Morriseau walked away from his Expo commission.
- Interviews with Russell Moses, who speaks about his father and his work at the Indians of Canada Pavilion, and Expo 67 hostess Barbara Wilson, who shares memories of her training for the pavilion.
"You have stolen our native land, our culture, our soul…" Falen leads Leah on a tour of the "Indians of Canada" pavilion, an Indigenous-led exhibit that didn't mince words.
- An immersive walk-through of the pavilion, from the welcome figure by Coastal Salish carver Simon Charlie to an artificial fire by the exit, "flames for visions of the future."
- Falen's method acting approach to becoming an official hostess. (Suspend your disbelief, folks. She's really wearing a hat.)
- Highlights from several key exhibits, including hard-hitting statements about the broken treaties, stolen land, the residential school system and the erasure of Indigenous spirituality.
- Why the exhibit challenged visitors who expecting a familiar, comfortable story — including the Queen, who "carefully ignored" certain sections, according to the Globe and Mail.
- How the context of the 60s — a time of residential schools, the Sixties Scoop and Hollywood westerns — made this pavilion that much more of an anomaly.
- What the exhibit meant for the young women chosen to represent their nations as hostesses, including interviews with Stella Chabot and Barb Williams, who said "I'm very, very grateful that that they stood their ground. And told it like it was. It could have been Walt Disney otherwise, you know."
- 4 immigrant architects and an ashtray: How Expo 67's Canada Pavilion was born. Article by Stephen Smith, CBC News, 2017.
- 17 Things You Need To Know About The Largest Event In Montreal History. Article by MTL Blog, Michael D'Alimonte, 2015.
- 50 Years of Expo 67. Library of Canada Archives podcast, 2017.
- History of Assembly of First Nations. Web Article, 2014.
- "It's Our Country": First Nations' Participation in the Indian Pavilion at Expo 67. Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, Myra Rutherdale and Jim Miller, 2006.
- Museum Pieces: Toward the Indigenization of Canadian Museums. McGill-Queen's University Press, Ruth B. Phillips, 2011.
- Picasso of the North. Art Canada Institute Essay by Carmen Robertson.
- Totem Poles, The Bill Reid Centre at Simon Fraser University, Website.
- Simon Charlie (1920-2005), Duncan Sightseeing Website
- Indigenous Resistance at Expo 67: A Case Study on the Indians of Canada Pavilion, Journal article by Julia Pingeton, McGill University, 2018.
- Pavilion Tells Indians' Story, news article by Indian News, Volume 10, Number 1, April 1967
- Indian Memento, short documentary by Michel Régnier, National Film Board, 1967
- Queen silent after viewing Indians demand for better deal, Globe and Mail, July 4 1967
- Indian Residential Schools & Reconciliation Paper, 1967-1969 Canada's Centennial and the White Paper, First Nations Education Steering Committee
- Expodition: Expo 67's Indians of Canada, radio story by Jim Robertson, aired Aug. 4, 1967. Via CBC Archives
- Museum Pieces: Toward the Indigenization of Canadian Museums. Anthology edited by Ruth B. Phillips, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2011., including "Arrow of Truth": The Indians of Canada Pavilion at Expo 67 (pp. 27-47) by Sherry Brydon.