One minute of exercise a day can keep you healthy
Interval training is this notion of peaks and valleys. So literally going hard and backing off, and repeat.- Dr. Martin Gibala
You've probably seen people in the gym do this, or done it yourself. You hit the treadmill, run fast, back off, run fast again... you get the picture.
A new study published this week in Cell Metabolism breaks down why "high-intensity interval training" can also help fight the effects of getting older.
Dr. Matt Robinson is an assistant professor of kinesiology at Oregon State University, but he conducted the study during a postdoc at the Mayo Clinic.
One of the theories of aging is that as a person gets older their muscle proteins start to accumulate little pieces of damage much like a car would accumulate rust over time.- Dr. Matt Robinson
The proteins he's talking about are the ones used inside muscle cells to make and maintain the mitochondria. Mitochondria is where our cells get their energy. As we age, the mitochondria start generating free radicals.
One damaging aspect of those free radicals is that they can have some negative effects on the cellular components such as the proteins. Once those proteins become damaged it's very important that we remove that damaged protein and then synthesize a new one in its place.- Dr. Matt Robinson
So if you don't buff out that rust, it'll spread.
To study effects of high-intensity interval training on these processes, Dr. Robinson devised a study with four groups of older and younger people.
One group did the high intensity interval training on an exercise bike, three times a week. That included a warm-up, then four, four minute intervals separated by three minutes of rest. Another did resistance training, so that's using free weights or machines to lift weights. And yet another combined both moderate cardio exercises — like riding an exercise bike — and resistance training. The final group was a sedentary control group.
Where the HIIT training comes in is we measured the protein damage. And we compared a group that was sedentary so they didn't exercise during the study duration. What we saw is that they had an accumulation of these damaged proteins. Now what was interesting on the HIIT training is that we didn't see that accumulation of damage. So the HIIT training appeared to protect against the accumulation of damaged proteins.- Dr. Matt Robinson
That study was looking at cellular effects of four, four minute exercise intervals. So, 16 minutes of intense exercise a day.
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Dr. Martin Gibala is a professor and chair of the Kinesiology department at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. He's also the co-author of a new book called, The One-Minute Workout. He says that time we spend exercising really intensely can go down even more… to one minute per day.
Sounds like click-bait, but it's not.
The following interview has been condensed and edited for clarity.
Bob McDonald: What got you into looking at the effectiveness of very short workouts?
Martin Gibala: Part of the reason is we know the number one cited reason why people are not physically active is lack of time. Now that's clearly an excuse for some folks but many of us lead very busy, time-pressed lives.
BM: OK, walk me through the one minute workout.
MG: The one minute workout really involves three 20 second hard bursts of exercise. Now that's typically set within a 10 minute time commitment. So start to finish. 10 minutes. You have a short warm up then you do those three 20 second very hard sprints with a little bit of recovery in between. And then a short cooldown so start to finish 10 minutes. But within that one minute, a very vigorous exercise.
BM: And that's it for the day?
MG: That's it. And we've tested it on a bike, we've recently tested it using stair climbing. So many of us live in office or apartment complexes work in office towers and so stairs are a very readily form available exercise. So I don't think the mode is particularly critical.
BM: Let's go through the science here. How does the one-minute method stack up to "pounding the pavement" type of exercise?
MG: In the lab we had one group do the three 10 minute sessions per week, so that's a 30 minute time commitment, and within that that would be three minutes of very vigorous exercise. And we had another group do 50 minutes of the more traditional, continuous moderate exercise three times a week. So typical public health guidelines.
What we found after several months of training was that the two groups improved by the same extent.- Dr. Martin Gibala
So the improvement in their cardio-respiratory fitness was the same on average. The improvement in their insulin sensitivity, which is a measure of how well the body uses blood sugar, was the same. Even changes inside their muscle – we took biopsies and measured changes in mitochondrial content and some cellular compounds. And they increased to the same extent, even though the interval group was involved in five-fold less total exercise and a five-fold lower time commitment.
BM: Were you surprised by that?
MG: It was consistent with what we hypothesized but I was surprised at the equal improvement between the groups. Now obviously there's individual differences there some people responded more than others but the fact that, on average, especially that improvement in their cardiovascular fitness was the same on average identical on average. That was quite a stunning result to me.
- Cell Metabolism paper: Enhanced Protein Translation Underlies Improved Metabolic and Physical Adaptations to Different Exercise Training Modes in Young and Old Humans
- PLOS ONE paper: Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment
- Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise paper: Brief Intense Stair Climbing Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness