Muslims around the world protest Trump's declaration of Jerusalem as Israel's capital

Large crowds of worshippers across the Muslim world staged anti-U.S. marches Friday, some stomping on posters of Donald Trump or burning American flags in the largest outpouring of anger yet at the U.S. president's recognition of bitterly contested Jerusalem as Israel's capital.

Israeli warplanes strike Gaza Strip amid fallout from U.S. policy change on Jerusalem

Palestinian protesters react to tear gas fired by Israeli troops during clashes as Palestinians call for a 'day of rage' in response to U.S. President Donald Trump's recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital, near the border with Israel in the east of Gaza on Thursday. (Mohammed Salem/Reuters)

Large crowds of worshippers across the Muslim world staged anti-U.S. marches Friday, some stomping on posters of Donald Trump or burning American flags in the largest outpouring of anger yet at the U.S. president's recognition of bitterly contested Jerusalem as Israel's capital.

In the holy city itself, prayers at Islam's third-holiest site dispersed largely without incident, but Palestinians clashed with Israeli troops in several dozen West Bank hotspots and on the border with the Gaza Strip.

Israeli warplanes struck Hamas military targets in the Gaza Strip on Friday in response to a rocket fired from the area that Israel's military said was intercepted by its Iron Dome missile-defence system.

A girl reacts as injured Palestinians receive treatment at the hospital following an Israeli airstrike in Beit Lahia in the northern Gaza Strip on Friday. (Mohammed Abed/AFP/Getty Images)

The Palestinian health ministry said at least 15 people were injured in Friday's airstrikes.

A Reuters report said at least two people were killed in clashes with Israeli troops on Friday when thousands of Palestinians demonstrated against Trump's move.

Dozens of Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza were hit by live rounds or rubber-coated steel or inhaled tear gas, Palestinian health officials said.

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Palestinians take part in a Hamas rally in Gaza's Jabalia refugee camp on Friday. (Mohammed Abed/AFP/Getty Images)

Trump's pivot on Jerusalem triggered warnings from America's friends and foes alike that he is needlessly stirring more conflict in an already volatile region.

The religious and political dispute over Jerusalem forms the emotional core of the Israeli-Arab conflict. The ancient city is home to major Muslim, Jewish and Christian shrines and looms large in the competing national narratives of Israelis and Palestinians.

Trump's decision on Jerusalem, welcomed by Israel's prime minister, is widely seen in the region as a blatant expression of pro-Israel bias. But it was unclear if protests and confrontations would maintain momentum after Friday. More extensive violence has erupted in the Palestinian areas in the past, including deadly bloodshed triggered by disputes over Jerusalem.

Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas' Fatah movement and other groups had called for three "days of rage" this week.

However, Abbas remains an opponent of violence, saying it's counterproductive and that he might at some point order his security forces to contain protests.

Protesters burn an Israeli flag during a protest in Amman, Jordan, on Friday. (Muhammad Hamed/Reuters)

Separately, the Gaza-based Islamic militant group Hamas called this week for a third uprising against Israel, but such appeals have fizzled as Palestinians become more disillusioned with their leaders.

On Friday, demonstrators in the West Bank torched heaps of tires, sending columns of thick black smoke rising over the cities of Ramallah and Bethlehem. Palestinian stone-throwers traded volleys in the streets with soldiers firing tear gas and rubber bullets. Along the Gaza-Israel border fence, Israeli troops fired at stone-throwers.

A Palestinian walks in front of the Dome of the Rock ahead of the prayers in Jerusalem on Friday. Israeli police deployed reinforcements in and around Jerusalem's Old City, in anticipation of Palestinian protests. (Mahmoud Illean/Associated Press)

From Asia's Indonesia, Malaysia and Pakistan to North Africa's Algeria and Lebanon in the Levant — thousands of worshippers poured into the streets after midday prayers to voice their anger.

In Jordan's capital of Amman, thousands marched through the centre of town, chanting "America is the head of the snake."

Pro-Western Jordan is a crucial U.S. ally in the fight against Islamic extremists, but King Abdullah II cannot afford to be seen as soft on Jerusalem. His Hashemite dynasty derives its legitimacy from its role as guardian of the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, Islam's third-holiest site.

Security Council emergency session

Trump's decision has also strained U.S. foreign relations.

UN Mideast envoy Nickolay Mladenov told an emergency session of the UN Security Council on Friday that Trump's announcement created a "serious risk" of a chain of unilateral actions that would push the goal of peace further away.

Palestinian UN Ambassador Riyad Mansour warned of the danger of "a never-ending religious war that will only be exploited by extremists, fuelling more radicalism, violence and strife in the region and elsewhere."

Israel's UN ambassador, however, is urging all nations to follow the United States and recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Danny Danon told the council on Friday that Trump's move "is a critical and necessary step for peace."

He stressed that "there will never be peace without Jerusalem as the capital of the state of Israel. And that will never change."

But criticism over Trump's decision was coming from many corners, including from traditional U.S. allies.

Sweden's UN Ambassador Olof Skoog said the U.S. action "contradicts international law and Security Council resolutions." Britain's Ambassador Matthew Rycroft called the U.S. decision "unhelpful to peace," the French envoy expressed regret and Italy's Sebastiano Cardi warned of "the risk of unrest and tensions in the region."

The U.S. ambassador, Nikki Haley, told the council that the Trump administration is more committed to peace "than we've ever been before — and we believe we might be closer to that goal than ever before." Haley did not explain.

Tillerson downplays shift

In Europe, U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson on Friday played down the impact of Trump's policy shift, which also included a pledge to move the U.S. Embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Tillerson said it will likely take years for the U.S. to open an embassy in Jerusalem.

In a news conference with the French foreign minister, Tillerson said Trump's recognition of the city as Israel's capital "did not indicate any final status for Jerusalem."

The United States is making clear that Jerusalem's borders will be left to Israelis and Palestinians to "negotiate and decide," he said.

Map of Israel and Palestinian Territories

Most countries around the world have not recognized Israel's 1967 annexation of East Jerusalem and maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv. Under a longstanding international consensus, the fate of the city is to be determined in negotiations.

Trump's announcement delivered a blow to Abbas, a supporter of the idea of reaching Palestinian statehood through U.S.-led negotiations with Israel. In siding with Israel on Jerusalem, he has said, the Trump administration effectively disqualified itself as a mediator.

However, Abbas has not decided how to move forward, including whether he will rule out future U.S.-brokered negotiations. Trump has said he still intends to propose a Mideast peace deal.

More than two decades of intermittent Israeli-Palestinian negotiations have failed to bring the Palestinians closer to statehood. Some in Abbas's inner circle say the old paradigm, with the U.S. serving as mediator, is no longer relevant.

Outside Lions Gate, in the Old City of Jerusalem, Israeli police forces were ramped up but still quiet in anticipation of protests Friday. (Stephanie Jenzer/CBC)

On Thursday, a senior Fatah official said the Palestinians would not receive Vice-President Mike Pence when he visits the West Bank later this month, but it was not immediately clear if the official spoke for Abbas.

The Arab League, an umbrella group of close to two dozen states, is to meet Saturday to try to forge a joint position, followed next week by a gathering in Turkey of the 57-state Organization of Islamic Cooperation.

Turkish officials said Russian President Vladimir Putin will travel to Turkey next week for talks with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Jerusalem's status and other issues.

With files from Reuters