Charlie Hebdo Paris shooting: How criticisms, satires of Islam have sparked violence
The deadly shootings in the Paris offices of Charlie Hebdo, a weekly newspaper that caricatured the Prophet Muhammad, is the latest attack by extremists on artists, journalists or writers who have been critical of or satirized Islam.
Here's a look at other incidents that have inspired waves of protest and violence.
- LIVE BLOG | Follow developments here
- PHOTOS | Charlie Hebdo offices stormed by masked gunmen
- Charlie Hebdo has controversial history of offending radical Islam
- Political cartoonists react to shooting
Sept. 11, 2012: Innocence of Muslims
An obscure, 14-minute YouTube trailer for an amateur film titled Innocence of Muslims set off protests in a number of Muslim countries and at U.S. embassies. The offending video, which ridicules the Prophet Muhammad, was posted in July, but became viral when a version was dubbed into Arabic.
Nov 2, 2011: Charlie Hebdo offices firebombed
Paris offices of Charlie Hebdo are firebombed after the satirical newspaper runs a cover featuring a caricature of the Prophet Muhammad. Nobody is injured.
New Year's Day, 2010: Axe attack on cartoonist
A Somali man wielding an axe breaks into the home of Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard who had caricatured the Prophet Muhammad. Westergaard locks himself inside a panic room and was not hurt.
Feb. 9, 2006: Offending cartoons reprinted
Charlie Hebdo publishes a special issue in which a dozen controversial drawings of Muhammad are reprinted. The editorial cartoons were originally published in Jyllands-Posten, a Danish newspaper, a year earlier and sparked violent demonstrations throughout much of the Muslim world.
Sept. 30, 2005: Danish cartoons
Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten publishes 12 crude caricatures of Muhammad, including a drawing of the Prophet wearing a lit bomb inside his turban. The cartoons led to attacks on Danish embassies and the embassies of other Nordic and European countries across the Middle East and North Africa. More than 100 people were reported to have been killed in clashes related to the demonstrations.
Aug. 29, 2004: Theo van Gogh's Submission
Submission, a 10-minute short film by Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh, premiered on Dutch cable television. The film is meant as a condemnation of abuse of Muslim women by Muslim men, and features scenes in which Qur'anic verses are scrawled on the women's skin. Van Gogh says his intention was not to shock anyone, but he began receiving death threats, and a little more than two months after the broadcast he was fatally shot and stabbed by a suspected Muslim fanatic on an Amsterdam street.
Feb. 14, 1989: Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses
Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini issues a fatwa (religious edict) calling for the executions of British author Salman Rushdie and the publishers of his novel The Satanic Verses. The book offers a fictionalized account of the life of Muhammad, which many Muslims felt was blasphemous. Days earlier, an uproar over the book in Pakistan led to the deaths of five youths.
In 1998, Iran stated that it was no longer pursuing Rushdie's death but that decree appeared to be overturned a few years later and, in September 2012, the calls for Rushdie's death are resurrected when a religious foundation in Iran raised the bounty on the writer's head to $3.3 million.
With files from The Associated Press