2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine: Trio win for malaria, parasite research
First Nobel Prize given to a Chinese scientist for work carried out within China
A Chinese scientist who turned to ancient texts to discover a powerful malaria drug shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine
on Monday with American and Japanese researchers whose discoveries have raised hopes of eliminating other tropical diseases.
The Nobel judges in Stockholm awarded the prestigious prize to Irish-born William Campbell, Satoshi Omura of Japan and Tu Youyou — the first-ever Chinese medicine laureate.
Campbell and Omura were cited for discovering avermectin, derivatives of which have helped lower the incidence of river blindness and lymphatic filariasis, two diseases caused by parasitic worms that affect millions of people in Africa and Asia.
- Global deaths from communicable diseases
- Malaria death rates plunge by 60% over last 15 years: WHO
- Malaria drug resistance poses 'enormous threat'
Tu discovered artemisinin, a drug that has helped significantly reduce the mortality rates of malaria patients.
"The two discoveries have provided humankind with powerful new means to combat these debilitating diseases that affect hundreds of millions of people annually," the committee said. "The consequences in terms of improved human health and reduced suffering are immeasurable."
River blindness is an eye and skin disease that ultimately leads to blindness. About 90 per cent of the disease occurs in Africa, according to the World Health Organization.
Lymphatic filariasis can lead to swelling of the limbs and genitals, called elephantiasis, and it's primarily a threat in Africa and Asia. The WHO says 120 million people are infected with the disease, with about 40 million disfigured and incapacitated.
Campbell, born in 1930, is a research fellow emeritus at Drew University in Madison, New Jersey. Omura, 80, is a professor emeritus at Kitasato University in Japan and is from the central prefecture of Yamanashi. Tu, 84, is chief professor at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
"I wonder if I deserve the prize. I have learned so much from microorganisms and I have depended on them, so I would much rather give the prize to microorganisms," Omura told Japanese broadcaster NHK.
Omura isolated new strains of Streptomyces bacteria and cultured them so that they could be analyzed for their impact against harmful microorganisms, the Nobel committee said.
Campbell showed that one of those cultures was "remarkably efficient" against parasites in animals. The bioactive agent was purified and modified to a compound that effectively killed parasitic larvae, leading to the discovery of new class of drugs.
"This was the work of a team of researchers so it is by no means my work, it's our work," said Campbell, 85, who learned of his prize in a pre-dawn phone call from Reuters that woke him at his home in North Andover, Massachusetts.
"In the first decade, there were 70 authors that I co-authored papers with. That gives you some idea of the number
of people involved," he said.
Tu turned to herbal medicine to discover a new anti-malarial agent, artemisinin (pronounced ar-tuh-MIHS'-ihn-ihn), that was highly effective against malaria, a disease that was on the rise in the 1960s, the committee said.
The last time a Chinese citizen won a Nobel was in 2012, when Mo Yan got the literature award. But China has been yearning for a Nobel Prize in science. This was the first Nobel Prize given to a Chinese scientist for work carried out within China.
"This is indeed a glorious moment," said Li Chenjian, a vice provost at prestigious Peking University. "This also is an acknowledgement to the traditional Chinese medicine, for the work began with herbal medicine."
The medicine award was the first Nobel Prize to be announced. The winners of the physics, chemistry and peace prizes are set to be announced later this week. The economics prize will be announced next Monday. No date has been set yet for the literature prize, but it is expected to be announced on Thursday.
The winners will share the 8 million Swedish kronor (about $960,000 US) prize money with one half going to Campbell and Omura, and the other to Tu. Each winner will also get a diploma and a gold medal at the annual award ceremony on Dec. 10, the anniversary of the death of prize founder Alfred Nobel.
Last year's medicine award went to three scientists who discovered the brain's inner navigation system.
With files from Reuters