A team of Toronto researchers examined nearly 300 suicide notes. Here's what they found
Notes were from suicide cases that occurred between 2003 and 2009 and were reported to coroner's office
Powerlessness, battling with mental illness and self-blame are common themes found in suicide notes, according to a study from Canadian researchers that recommends health-care professionals target those issues in treatment and prevention programs.
"We know a lot about peoples' experiences with suicide, but it's very rare to be able to get into a unique window into the mindset of people who die by suicide," said Dr. Juveria Zaheer, who co-authored the study and is a clinician scientist at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.
The study, conducted by researchers at CAMH and the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, examined 290 suicide notes that were then narrowed down to 36 notes that explicitly referenced mental illness and mental health care.
Feelings of powerlessness commonly expressed in notes
The notes were from suicide cases that occurred between 2003 and 2009 and were reported to the Office of the Chief Coroner for Ontario, the study said.
Mental illness was often portrayed as an opponent or a foe that you're battling.- Dr. Zainab Furqan
About 90 per cent of people who die by suicide have been diagnosed with a mental illness, Zaheer said.
Dr. Zainab Furqan, who also co-authored the study, said the research aimed to explore how mental illness and mental health care was described by those who died by suicide.
Describing a battle with mental illness was also a recurring theme in the notes, the study found.
"Mental illness was often portrayed as an opponent or a foe that you're battling," said Furqan. "We found that this really uses up a lot of mental energy and they used words like 'exhaustion' and 'tiredness' to describe this battle."
The study also said that in more than half of the suicide notes examined, hopelessness was mentioned in reference to previous mental illness treatment. People also often blamed themselves for not responding positively to treatments, the study found.
'You are not your illness'
Furqan said clinicians should also work toward helping a patient balance how they view themselves and their mental illness.
"So not completely separating themselves from their mental illness but also not taking on the mental illness as their full
identity," she said.
Furqan and Zaheer said they want the study to be "hopeful" but they acknowledge that it's hard for people who are experiencing depression to feel that way.
"If we could say anything to people who are suffering, is to hold on to that thread of hope because there are treatments that can be effective and can work," said Zaheer. "You are not your illness."
Where to get help:
In French: Association québécoise de prévention du suicide: 1-866-APPELLE (1-866-277-3553)
Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention: Find a 24-hour crisis centre
If you're worried someone you know may be at risk of suicide, you should talk to them about it, says the Canadian Association for Suicide Prevention.
Here are some warning signs:
- Suicidal thoughts.
- Substance abuse.
- Feeling trapped.
- Hopelessness and helplessness.
- Mood changes.