Canada·CBC EXPLAINS

'If you're sick, stay home' is a non-starter for many Canadians

Most Canadian workers still feel like they can't stay home from work, even if they are worried they might have COVID-19. Despite growing demands for better paid sick leave, most Canadians still have inadequate coverage.

More than a year into the pandemic, most Canadians still have no paid sick leave

A man holds up a sign as a group advocating for provincially mandated paid sick days for workers participates in a 'die-in' rally outside Queens Park in Toronto on Jan. 13. (Cole Burston/The Canadian Press)

The debate around paid sick leave has grown louder and more urgent in the past several weeks as COVID-19 cases have soared in many parts of the country along with concern that people are going to work sick because they can't afford to lose their pay. 

Provincial governments have been under near-constant pressure for months to mandate paid sick leave. 

At the end of February, the labour federations from all 10 provinces and three territories joined together to call for "seamless access to universal, permanent and adequate employer-paid sick days for all workers."

That has not happened. But there has been some movement. 

Here's a brief look at where paid sick leave stands right now in Canada. 

How many Canadians have paid sick leave?

Most don't, according to a report released last August by the Decent Work and Health Network, a network of health providers based in Ontario who advocate for better employment conditions.

Fifty-eight per cent of workers in Canada reported having no access to paid sick days, the report found, citing a University of B.C. analysis of 2016 Statistics Canada data. It's even higher for those who earn less than $25,000 — more than 70 per cent had no paid sick leave.

And a study released last fall by Corporate Knights found only 28 per cent of the large Canadian companies surveyed offered adequate sick leave, which was defined as at least 10 paid days per year.

Members of the Decent Work and Health Network rally in Toronto in 2019. The group says more than half of all Canadian workers have no paid sick leave, with the numbers even higher among those who earn under $25,000. (CBC)

Do any provinces offer paid sick leave?

Two provinces mandate sick leave. 

In Quebec, a worker is entitled to two days per year, after six months of employment, to be paid by the employer. In Prince Edward Island, a worker is entitled to one employer-paid day per year, after five years of employment. 

Despite ongoing demands that the other provinces do something to help workers who are sick, the pleas have mostly fallen on mostly deaf ears. 

After arguing for months that there is no need for provinces to bring in paid sick leave — because the federal program brought in specifically to deal with COVID-19 is good enough — Ontario Premier Doug Ford reversed his stance late last week, calling Ottawa's effort "inadequate."

Ford promised that Ontario would bring in its own program after the federal government did not enhance its existing benefit in its latest budget.

That same day, however, Ontario's finance minister wrote Ottawa to ask for its co-operation to top up the federal measure.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said Ottawa was in talks with Ontario but suggested the province work with the businesses it regulates to implement its own program, as his government did with federally regulated workplaces.

"We need to work together and provinces need to look at the way to deliver a sick leave directly through employers, which the federal government can't do," he said.

Ford's government has refused to pass a bill put forward by the opposition NDP, and supported by the Ontario Federation of Labour, that would guarantee paid sick days for every worker, delivered by their employer.

B.C. Premier John Horgan also pledged to fill in the gaps left by the federal program. But his government's new budget came and went on April 20 with no mention of a paid sick leave program

What does the federal program cover? 

The $1.1 billion Canada recovery sickness benefit (CRSB), which was unveiled last fall, offers workers $500 ($450 after taxes) for a one-week period. If the illness lasts longer, the worker must reapply. 

The CRSB will pay a maximum of two weeks total, for the period between Sept. 27, 2020 and Sept. 25, 2021. A worker must be off sick for at least 50 per cent of their normal work week to qualify, and must have earned $5000 in 2019, 2020, or in the 12 months prior to applying.

Some advocates say it falls short of what is needed. 

WATCH | Advocates say Ontario's failed sick leave plan comes up short:

Ontario’s failed plan for paid sick leave falls flat

The National

10 days ago
2:06
Ontario’s failed plan to fill the gap on paid sick leave during the COVID-19 crisis fell flat with advocates and families who have lost a loved one from catching the virus at work. 2:06

"What we're trying to address here is a worker who wakes up in the morning and they have symptoms," said Laird Cronk, president of the B.C. Federation of Labour, one of the 13 federations that made the joint request for employer-paid sick leave.

The application process and eligibility criteria make it difficult for a worker to just decide to stay home, he said.

"We don't want them to say, I'm so worried about this untenable decision, so worried about paying rent or groceries and food or medications or for the kids, that they convince themselves that it's probably seasonal allergies and they hope for the best because they can't afford to lose the money."

Workers prepare beef to be packaged at the Cargill facility near High River, Alta. The plant was the site of largest COVID-19 outbreak in North America. (Name withheld)

His federation, for example, is urging the B.C. government to change the Employment Standards Act to let that worker stay home and continue to receive his or her wage for up to 10 days, which could then be reimbursed by the province.

"Employers who can show that they've been, in the short term, affected by COVID-19 economically, would receive relief from the government on a sliding scale … up to 75 or 80 per cent reimbursed."

The head of the Canadian Federation of Independent Business told CBC News in January that the CRSB is sufficient and that it is right that the government pay for sick leave — not employers. 

"To impose the costs on small firms at this stage would be really challenging, of course, because most small firms are desperately hanging to say stay on," said Kelly. "Any additional cost would be absolutely devastating."

How much is COVID-19 care costing the government?

While the potential cost of paid sick leave — whether covered by governments or workplaces — is the main sticking point, the price of treating people who need to be hospitalized due to COVID-19 is clear. 

According to the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), between January and November 2020, stays in hospital for COVID-19 related illness costs about $23,000 per stay — four times higher than the average stay. The average length of COVID-19 stay was about two weeks, according to CIHI. 

In that time period, the estimated total cost of COVID-19 related hospitalizations in Canada was more than $317 million. 

A nurse tends to a patient suspected of having COVID-19 in the intensive care unit at North York General Hospital, in Toronto, on May 26, 2020. (Evan Mitsui/CBC)

There were more than 13,900 hospital stays for patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 in Canada between last January and November, along with more than 85,400 emergency department visits for COVID-19.

The CIHI data does not include numbers from Quebec. 

With files from Nick Boisvert, Ryan Patrick Jones, and The Canadian Press

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