Montreal

Mayor Jean Drapeau tried to prevent the 1955 Richard Riot — but Clarence Campbell wouldn't listen

Documents from the longtime mayor's personal archives show both Jean Drapeau and the police warned the NHL president he risked sparking a riot if he showed up to the Forum after suspending Maurice "Rocket" Richard — but he ignored them.

Documents from the longtime Montreal mayor's archives show NHL president ignored police, Drapeau's warnings

A suspended Maurice Richard, left, sits with Dr. Gordon Young, the Canadiens' club physician, during the hometown hockey game at the Montreal Forum that turned into a riot. (The Canadian Press)

Documents from longtime Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau's personal archives show both Drapeau and the police warned NHL president Clarence Campbell he risked sparking a riot if he showed up to the Forum after suspending Maurice "Rocket" Richard for the rest of the hockey season — but he ignored them.

Drapeau's archives were released this fall, 20 years after his death — and they shed more light on what happened on March 17, 1955 — the day of the Richard Riot.

The riot proved to be a pivotal moment in Quebec history, tapping into the first stirrings of French Canadian nationalism, which would soon grow into the Quiet Revolution.

On that fateful St. Patrick's Day, the Montreal Canadiens were set to play the Detroit Red Wings, but when Campbell took his seat in the Forum, 10 minutes into the game, garbage rained down on him; someone smeared Campbell's face with a tomato; someone else set off a homemade tear gas bomb.

The crowd erupted into a protest that emptied the Forum and spilled out onto Ste-Catherine Street, where rioters overturned cars and smashed shop windows. By the end of the night, scores of people had been arrested.

Longtime Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau was an avid letter-writer. His personal archives are now open to the public, 20 years after his death. (Montreal archives)

The protesters were upset that four days earlier, "Rocket" Richard had been suspended for the remainder of the season, after hitting a linesman who was trying to break up a fight between Richard and Bruins defender Hal Laycoe.

The Canadiens' fans were infuriated.

In Quebec, where former hockey referee Red Storey once said, "hockey was bigger than the Church, and Rocket Richard was bigger than the Pope," Richard's suspension was interpreted as another effort to embarrass and subjugate francophone players, in a league where they were already treated more harshly and paid less than their English-speaking counterparts.

Hockey fans outside of Quebec saw the Rocket's suspension as fair.

Looking back on the 'Richard Riot'

Digital Archives

16 years ago
2:29
Maurice Richard is suspended from the playoffs, and Montreal erupts in a violent expression of rage. Hockey footage: NHL Photo: Hockey Hall of Fame 2:29

Warned twice by police

Understanding the political context and potential for violence, Montreal police tried to dissuade Campbell from attending the game that night.

"I asked Mr. Campbell why he was insisting on going to the Forum," the police report read. "He responded, 'I want to be there, and I want police protection.'"

As the game was getting started, police reported an angry horde of people waiting outside the Forum. Once again, Campbell was discouraged from entering.

In the police report, the chief wrote that he called Campbell personally.

"Given that I wasn't able to leave my command post and there was no other constable available to meet Mr. Campbell, I went into the office of the Canadian Arena Company, where I asked Mr. Paul Lebel to call … and warn Mr. Campbell that the police were not able to escort him inside, and it would be better if he didn't go to the Forum."

Campbell went anyway. He sat next to a police escort, but it didn't matter. When the tear-gas bomb exploded, it left people retching, surging for the exits. 

The first man to lob a tomato at Campbell was 26-year-old André Robinson, the police document said. From there, it was all downhill. The riot went on all night and there were fears of a repeat the next night as well — only quelling when Maurice Richard himself went on radio and television, asking for calm.

A copy of the original police report into the Richard Riot was included in the Jean Drapeau archives. (Archives de Montréal)

Campbell's presence was 'provocation,' said Drapeau

The day after the riot, Drapeau issued a statement, chastening Campbell for ignoring the warnings of "serious-minded people."

"It would have been wiser for Mr. Campbell to have refrained from going to the Forum, and especially from announcing his intention in advance. His presence could, in effect, be accepted as an act of defiance."

"It is true that, during the first ten minutes of play, everything went well," he wrote, "and it was only when Campbell took his seat, accompanied by his secretary, that things began to develop in a regrettable manner."

Drapeau, too, had tried to persuade Campbell to stay home that night. The mayor understood that Canadiens fans were on edge following Richard's suspension.

"I was justified in trusting that the people would give evidence of their feelings in an orderly manner, as a matter of fact, it was only on the provocation of Mr. Clarence Campbell's presence that protests assumed a different tone."

Drapeau finished his statement by saying he would be staying home from the next Habs game, and he implored Campbell to do the same.

As a result of the suspension, Richard did not win the title for the NHL player with the most points. The Habs also lost the playoffs that year — to the Detroit Red Wings. 

They'd have to wait until the following season to win back the coveted Stanley Cup, which they went on to win for four more straight years.

Maurice Richard, left, and Jean Beliveau hoist the Stanley Cup after defeating the Boston Bruins 5-3 at the Boston Garden on April 20, 1958. With Richard benched, the Habs lost the 1954-55 season, but they went on to win the next five championship titles. (Associated Press)

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