British Columbia

UBC researchers develop rapid test to detect invasive gypsy moth

The gypsy moth is tiny but it poses an outsized threat to the environment and B.C.'s economy.

The test can detect the presence of the moths within hours and without a lab

Gypsy moths are one of the most destructive pests of over 500 species of trees, shrubs and plants. (Government of Manitoba)

Gypsy moths are an invasive species that can wreak havoc on B.C.'s forests, but a new rapid test developed by researchers at the University of British Columbia can detect the presence of the moths within hours and without a lab.

The gypsy moth, which can damage more than 500 species of trees, shrubs and plants, can kill young trees in only a couple of years by stripping their leaves clean. However, the moths can be difficult to detect just by looking at spots and bumps on a tree. 

Enter Richard Hamelin, a professor with UBC's faculty of forestry.

He says the new rapid test is the culmination of 25 years of work in looking at ways to detect pathogens in trees. 

"I've been interested in developing a quick test to identify pests and pathogens of trees, not just the gypsy moth, but any enemy of the forest, really, that, you know, we would have a DNA test that could tell us, identify rapidly the cause of the infection or the attack," Hamelin said. 

The test works by amplifying the level of DNA in a sample to a level where it can be detected. 

Gypsy moths tend to prefer hardwood trees like maple, elm and, particularly, oak. These cream coloured, fluffy egg masses, pictured on this tree, can contain anywhere between 500 to 1,000 eggs. (Sofia Rodriguez/CBC)

While the European gypsy moth population is well established in eastern North America, it has yet to penetrate the West Coast in large numbers. Also of concern is the Asian gypsy moth, which has yet to be established in North America.

This makes quick detection of great importance, Hamelin said, noting that one female Asian gypsy moth can fly up to 25 kilometres and lay 1,500 eggs.

"Acting fast allows us to nip the outbreak in the bud and prevent it from spreading," he said. "Every hour counts."

Previous DNA tests have been hampered in this regard, because samples would have to be sent to labs hundreds of kilometres away. The new test allows detection right in the field, allowing for the eradication or containment of any noted gypsy moth colony. 

The testing kit — which can be contained within a backpack — will be sent out with foresters and forest technicians this summer before being developed further for broader use.

"We're going to put it in their hands to see if we can work out the kinks," said Hamelin. 

Clarifications

  • The story has been updated to include which specific type of female gypsy moth is able to fly.
    Jul 29, 2020 8:48 PM PT

With files from On The Coast

Comments

To encourage thoughtful and respectful conversations, first and last names will appear with each submission to CBC/Radio-Canada's online communities (except in children and youth-oriented communities). Pseudonyms will no longer be permitted.

By submitting a comment, you accept that CBC has the right to reproduce and publish that comment in whole or in part, in any manner CBC chooses. Please note that CBC does not endorse the opinions expressed in comments. Comments on this story are moderated according to our Submission Guidelines. Comments are welcome while open. We reserve the right to close comments at any time.

now