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Before the Battle of the Plains of Abraham
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LESSON 9: Before the Battle of the Plains of Abraham

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This lesson corresponds to material found in:
Episode 4 Battle for a Continent

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Backgrounder

In 1755, the Acadians were deported, skirmishes put the English and French at odds in Niagara and the Ohio valley, and more and more Americans, like Benjamin Franklin, were encouraging Britain to conquer the whole continent and create one English Protestant territory.

On May 17, 1756, Britain declared war on France. Unable to defeat France in Europe, England turned its attention to North America, where it could deliver a severe blow to French settlements. At this time there were more than 600,000 British in America, as opposed to 60,000 French. The British struck first at the fortress of Louisbourg, bombarding it for two months before governor Augustin de Drucour surrendered in July of 1758, when it was too late in the season for the British to mount another attack. Among the victors was 31-year-old General James Wolfe. He was an audacious general who led the landing of British troops at Port-Royal. He was chosen to lead the attack on Quebec planned for the following year, and returned to England to receive further instructions.

The French troops and the Canadian militia were commanded by General Louis-Joseph Marquis de Montcalm, then 47. Montcalm won two important victories - one at the destruction of Fort Oswego in 1756, and at the 1758 battle of Fort Carillon, near Lake Champlain, where he managed to oust a British regiment that outnumbered his forces three to one. After this victory, Montcalm returned to Quebec for the winter.

It would be a long winter of waiting for the war to begin again in the spring.

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    Episode 1
    When the World Began...
    Lesson 1 Canada's First Peoples
    (includes activity)
    Lesson 2 Stories of Creation
    Lesson 3 Cartier and Donnacona

    Episode 2
    Adventures and Mystics
    Lesson 4 The Beginning of the Fur Trade
    (includes activity)
    Lesson 5 The Jesuits and the Huron
    Lesson 6 Immigration to New France

    Episode 3
    Claiming the Wilderness
    Lesson 7 Expansion to the Gulf of Mexico
    (includes activity)
    Lesson 8 The Expulsion of the Acadians

    Episode 4
    Battle for a Continent
    Lesson 9 Before the Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    Lesson 10 The Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    Lesson 11 The Quebec Act
    (includes activity)

    Episode 5
    A Question of Loyalties
    Lesson 12 Conflict in Quebec, 1775
    Lesson 13 United Empire Loyalists
    (includes activity)
    Lesson 14 Sir Isaac Brock and Tecumseh

    Episode 6
    The Pathfinders
    Lesson 15 The Fur Trade in Canada
    (includes activity)
    Lesson 16 The Selkirk Settlers
    Lesson 17 The Gold Rush

    Episode 7
    Rebellion and Reform
    Lesson 18 The Rebellions of 1837
    Lesson 19 Union of the Canadas
    (includes activity)
    Lesson 20 A Land of Hope

    Episode 8
    The Great Enterprise
    Lesson 21 Newcomers to Canada
    Lesson 22 The Making of Confederation
    (includes activity)
    Lesson 23 Confederation in the Maritimes

    Episode 9
    From Sea to Sea
    Lesson 24 The Red River Resistance
    (includes activity)
    Lesson 25 The Pacific Scandal

    Episode 10
    Taking the West
    Lesson 26 The North-West Rebellion
    Lesson 27 The Trial of Louis Riel
    Lesson 28 Macdonald's National Dream

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