France regains control of its colony
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France regains control of its colony
France regains control of its colony
Between 1645 and 1665, New France was under siege.
Marie de L'Incarnation obeyed a call from God to convert the natives of New France. (As portrayed by Paule Baillargeon in Canada: A People's History)
Marie de L'Incarnation obeyed a call from God to convert the natives of New France. (As portrayed by Paule Baillargeon in Canada: A People's History)
The Irqoquois threat imprisoned the French in their settlements and in their large fortified villages. And their lives were made miserable. Merchants and settlers had to defend themselves on their own. No land was cleared anymore. The economic situation was catastrophic. There wasn't even a solitary horse to be found in the whole of New France. The little French colony on the St. Lawrence had only 350 settlers, men women and children included.

At this time, France was torn apart by the Fronde, the aristocratic uprising over the absolutist monarchy, and was mobilized for its war with Spain. The cry for help from its colony on the other side of the Atlantic fell on deaf ears.

In Quebec, Marie de l'Incarnation, feared for the survival of the French experiment in North America:

"There are not enough forces in all the country to resist them.
French troops were sent to help the settlers of New France fight the Iroquois. (As portrayed in Canada: A People's History)
French troops were sent to help the settlers of New France fight the Iroquois. (As portrayed in Canada: A People's History)
If France fails us, then, we must shortly either leave or die," wrote the founder of the Ursuline convent, tersely. "The enemy if he continues in his conquests and victories, there will be nothing for the French to do here."

The French were demoralized: the prolonged and systematic attacks on their outposts killed a tenth of their population.

In 1661, the settlers learned that the Prime Minister of France, Mazarin, who had remained indifferent to their fate, had died. Pierre Boucher was sent to plead their case to the King.

Louis XIV chose to govern his kingdom on his own.
He was only 22 years old but already dreamt of ruling over a great empire. He received the Governor of Trois-Rivières and listened carefully to him. He had absolutely no intention of beginning his reign with the loss of New France. Understanding that the Colony would not prosper as long there was a lone trading organisation, he abolished the Company of One Hundred Associates. Canada was no longer managed by a privately run trading organisation. He dismissed royal administration, and replaced it in the interim with a governor and an intendant, according to the French provincial model. As long as the Iroquois represented a real threat, these judicious reforms would have to be supported by a significant military effort.

"The Iroquois, who are the sworn enemies of the Colony," written in the King's Report which served as instruction to Talon, dated March 27, 1665, "by the massacre of a quantity of the French and by their inhumane practices carried out against those who fall into their hands, have reduced the population of the Colony to its present capacity.
The King, in order to bring about a proper solution, has decreed to declare war on them until they are completely destroyed."

Louis XIV decided to send experienced troops to the colony. They had just returned from a successful campaign against the Ottaman Empire. Having contributed to the defeat of infidels in the Orient, the Carignan regiment would now crush the pagans of the West.
In the early summer of 1665, the regiment landed in New France, on the King's summons.

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France regains control of its colony

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Arrival of the Carignan-Salires regiment
The Iroquois threat
The Iroquois threat
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Arrival of the Carignan-Salires regiment
Arrival of the Carignan-Salires regiment
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Carignan-Salires regiment's victory
Carignan-Salires regiment's victory
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The filles du roi (daughters of the king)
The filles du roi (daughters of the king)
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Marie-Claude Chamois' story, a fille du roi
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The engags (indentured servants)
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End of an era
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