Ernest Gaines, author of A Lesson Before Dying, dead at 86
Novelist Ernest J. Gaines, whose poor childhood on a small Louisiana plantation town germinated the stories of black struggles that grew into universal stories of grace and beauty, has died. He was 86.
Louisiana Gov. John Bel Edwards' office on Tuesday released word of his death.
Edwards said in a statement that Gaines "used his immense vision and literary talents to tell the stories of African Americans in the South. We are all blessed that Ernest left words and stories that will continue to inspire many generations to come."
A Lesson Before Dying, published in 1993, was an acclaimed classic.
Gaines was that year awarded a "genius grant" by the MacArthur Foundation, receiving $335,000 to spend over the next five years.
Both The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman (1971) and A Gathering of Old Men (1984) became honoured television movies.
The author of eight books, Gaines was born on a plantation in Pointe Coupee Parish and his first writing experience was writing letters for illiterate workers who asked him to embellish their news to far-off relatives. Bayonne, the setting for Gaines' fiction, was actually New Roads, Louisiana, which Gaines left for California when he was 15.
Although books were denied him throughout his childhood because of Louisiana's strict segregation — which extended even to libraries — he found the life surrounding him rich enough to recollect in story after story through exact and vivid detail.
In A Lesson Before Dying, for example, the central figure is the teacher at the plantation school outside town. Through the teacher, whose profession Gaines elevates to a calling, the novelist explores the consistent themes of his work: sacrifice and duty, the obligation to others, the qualities of loving, the nature of courage.
Gaines himself found that the use of his storytelling gifts meant more than militant civil rights action. "When Bull Connor would sic the dogs, I thought, 'Hell, write a better paragraph.'"
"In 1968, when I was writing The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, my friends said, 'Why write about a 110-year-old lady when all of this is going on now?' And I said, 'I think she's going to have something to say about it."'
What Gaines' characters said about it achieved a power and timelessness that made him a distinctive voice in American literature. Much of the appeal of his books is their seeming simplicity and straightforward storyline.
"I can never write big novels," he always maintained. But the questions he explored were the eternal ones great writers confront: what it means to be human, what a human lives and dies for.
Gaines has spent the fall teaching creative writing at the University of Southwestern Louisiana in Lafayette since 1983. It's only about an hour's drive from his childhood home.
He could not write and teach at the same time. He needed five or six hours each day devoted to writing and "I can't write a couple of days and skip two or three days."
A Lesson Before Dying took seven years.
"I work five days a week, just like a regular job. I get up in the morning, do a little exercise, eat a little breakfast. I'm at my desk by nine in the morning, work until three with a little break for lunch," he said.
His literary influences were eclectic. Since he only began reading at 15, he began with a vengeance.
"I discovered John Steinbeck... then Willa Cather... then the great 19th century Russian and French writers, writers like DeMaupassant and Flaubert. Then I discovered Ivan Turgenyev, the great Russian classicist. He wrote small novels where everyone wrote big novels. I could never write big novels. (Turgenyev's) Fathers and Sons was one of my favourite books when I was a young man. It was my Bible when I was writing my first novel, Catherine Carmier
(1964)," he said.
Other books include Of Love and Dust (1967), Bloodline (1968), A Long Day in November (1971) and In My Father's House (1978).
In addition to the MacArthur and numerous other awards, Gaines received prestigious grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, and the Rockefeller and Guggenheim Foundations. He held honorary doctorates from five colleges and universities.