Midfielder Martinez left off Paraguay's final squad
Argentina-born Lucas Barrios heads Paraguay's final 23-man World Cup squad named by coach Gerardo Martino on Monday.
Martino, who is an Argentine, announced the final squad a day before the FIFA deadline.
Barrios plays for German club Borussia Dortmund, and received his Paraguay passport just a few weeks ago. In just two friendlies with Paraguay he has scored twice: once in a 2-1 loss to Ireland, and the other in a 2-2 draw against fellow qualifier Ivory Coast.
Barrios was eligible for a Paraguay passport because his mother was born there.
Barrios is expected to be the replacement for Salvador Cabanas, who survived a point-blank gunshot wound to the head in January in a Mexico City bar. He was playing for Mexico club America.
Cabanas was released just over a week ago from a rehabilitation clinic in Buenos Aires and was expected to attend the World Cup as a fan.
Paraguay is making its fourth straight appearance in the World Cup and plays a friendly against fellow qualifier Greece on Wednesday in the Swiss city of Winterthur.
Paraguay is in Group F in South Africa, along with New Zealand, Slovakia and defending champion Italy.
Goalkeepers: Justo Villa (Valladolid), Aldo Bobadilla (Independiente Medellin), Diego Barreto (Cerro Porteno).
Defenders: Julio Cesar Caceres (Atletico Mineiro), Denis Caniza (Leon), Dario Veron (Pumas), Paulo Da Silva (Sunderland), Claudio Morel (Boca Juniors), Carlos Bonet (Olimpia), Aureliano Torres (San Lorenzo), Antolin Alcaraz (Brugge).
Midfielders: Cristian Riveros (Sunderland), Jonathan Santana (Wolfsburg), Enrique Vera (Liga de Quito), Victor Caceres (Libertad), Nestor Ortigoza (Argentinos Juniors), Edgar Barreto (Atalanta).
Forwards: Roque Santa Cruz (Manchester City), Oscar Cardozo (Benfica), Nelson Haedo Valdez (Borussia Dortmund), Rodolfo Gamarra (Libertad), Lucas Barrios (Borussia Dormund), Edgar Benitez (Pachuca).