The Snopes guide to spotting fake news
The science editor of myth-busting website Snopes says fake health news stories succeed online because "there's very little reward for accuracy and a lot of reward for sensationalism."
Alex Kasprak also tells Dr. Brian Goldman of White Coat, Black Art that the most common click-bait put out by fake news sites involves headlines that are a variation on 'this (product) is going to cause cancer.'
To legitimize that claim the stories distort the findings of studies or use very preliminary findings.
Over time Kasprak has learned to spot the markers of fake health news stories: conspiracy theories, outright lies, and mistrust of 'big pharma' and the government.
"The government is hiding pretty much anything and some higher power is preventing you from knowing (that) this random website you just heard about has all the answers," the editor says.
The main purveyors of fake health news are websites such as HealthNews.Net, Mercola.com or NaturalNews.net.
And Kasprak says fake health news finds a home on both right-wing and left-wing sites.
"There's been a sort of weird merger of right-wing libertarianism and left-wing science denialism that have merged on the internet in a powerful way."
Right-wing sites such as Alex Jones Infowars are big on government conspiracies, and they "merge well" with anti-vaccination websites and some natural health sites that question scientific fact and the government's motives.
"You bring that into the picture, the sort of idea that the government is trying to shut down (a cure) but there are these intrepid researchers who are trying to move it forward and bring the cure to you."
The "science denialism" that draws eyeballs to fake news health sites also makes people vulnerable to buying what the sites sometimes sell, including bogus cancer cures and supplements.
Kasprak says it's not difficult to use scientific fact to debunk a fake health story.
However he says, it's much harder is to stop that fake news story from becoming viral and continuing to get redistributed long after it's been proven to be fake.
Still, he's not convinced that cracking down and trying to regulate fake news sites is the answer.
In fact, Kasprak says that could make it worse, by feeding into the conspiracy theories.
"If you regulate it in any way that has the appearance of censorship you get into trouble with that population that you are trying to reach."