In the wake of the Virginia Tech tragedy five years ago, the University of Colorado and other schools across the U.S. created "threat assessment teams" to identify and take action against students who might turn violent. Now, in the aftermath of the movie theater rampage in Aurora, some are wondering whether the system broke down.
A Denver TV station reported this week that a university psychiatrist was so alarmed by graduate student James E. Holmes' behavior that she tried to bring him to the attention of the school's threat assessment team more than a month before the attack, but the group never met to talk about him because he had already taken steps to drop out.
Holmes, 24, is charged with murdering 12 people and wounding 58 in the July 20 rampage a few miles from the Aurora campus after methodically stockpiling guns and ammunition for months.
"If the argument is because he was no longer a student, he was no longer their problem, they are absolutely incorrect," said Larry Barton, a threat consultant and professor at American College in Bryn Mawr, Pa.
"Any court and any victim's family would have an argument that the school acted with indifference. I hope they have a very compelling answer to why they did what they did."
University Chancellor Don Elliman has repeatedly said the school did all it could with regard to Holmes. He and other university officials have refused to discuss any specifics, citing privacy laws and a judge's gag order. The university would not say whether staff members had any concerns about Holmes or whether police were ever alerted to him.
The school on Friday announced it had hired former U.S. Attorney Robert N. Miller to conduct a review of the university's procedures and actions in dealing with Holmes.
"We want the community… to know our resolve rests with understanding all the facts," Elliman said in a statement. It is not known how long the review will take or if its findings will be made public.
Police not contacted
KMGH-TV and the Denver Post, citing sources they did not identify, said police were never contacted about Holmes.
It's not clear what alarmed the psychiatrist, Dr. Lynne Fenton, or whether she even treated him. But she helped found the school's Behavioral Evaluation and Threat Assessment Team in 2010.
Virginia passed a law in 2008 requiring its four-year public colleges to set up threat assessment teams to investigate students after a mentally unstable Seung-Hui Cho shot 32 people to death and committed suicide at Virginia Tech. The student had been sending out warning signs for years with his sullen behavior and twisted, violent writings.
Even if the Colorado team had convened and police investigated, it's unclear whether any violence could have been prevented.
In December, Morgan State University police and counselors in Baltimore evaluated student Alex Kinyua following an outburst in a computer lab and concluded he posed no threat. Months later he was charged with murdering a man and eating his heart and brain.
In Arizona, Pima Community College student Jared Loughner had several run-ins with faculty members, students and campus police before he was suspended in 2010. Campus police told him to get a mental health evaluation or not return. Loughner was later arrested in the 2011 assassination attempt against Rep. Gabrielle Giffords that left six people dead.