Hungary declared a state of emergency in three counties Tuesday after a flood of toxic red sludge from an alumina plant engulfed several towns and burned people through their clothes.
The toll rose to four dead, six missing and at least 120 people injured after a reservoir failed Monday at the Ajkai Timfoldgyar plant in Ajka, a town roughly 160 kilometres southwest of Budapest, the capital.
Several hundred tonnes of plaster were being poured into the Marcal River to bind the toxic sludge and prevent it from flowing on, the National Disaster Management Directorate said.
So far, about one million cubic metres of sludge has leaked from the reservoir, affecting an estimated 40 square kilometres, Environmental Affairs State Secretary Zoltan Illes told the state news wire MTI.
Illes called the flood an "ecological catastrophe" and said the sludge could reach the Raba and Danube rivers. He suspended activity at the plant and ordered the company to repair the damaged reservoir.
The disaster agency said 390 residents had to be temporarily relocated and 110 were rescued from the flooded towns, including Kolontár, Devecser and Somlovasarhely. Firefighters and soldiers swept through the region Tuesday carrying out cleanup tasks with bulldozers.
The sludge, a waste product in aluminum production, contains heavy metals and is toxic if ingested.
Many of the injured sustained burns as the sludge seeped through their clothes, and two were in critical condition. Two women, a young man and a three-year-old child were killed in the flooding.
The injured were being monitored because the chemical burns caused by the sludge could take days to emerge and what may seem like superficial injuries could later cause damage to deeper tissue, Dr. Peter Jakabos of Gyor hospital, where several of the injured were taken, told state television.
In Devecser, the sludge in Tunde Erdelyi's house was still 1.5 metres high Tuesday and rescue workers had to use an axe to cut through her living room door to let the red liquid flow out.
"When I heard the rumble of the flood, all the time I had was to jump out the window and run to higher ground," said a tearful Erdelyi, still shocked by the events but grateful that the family rabbit and cat were safe.
Robert Kis, Erdelyi's husband, said his uncle had been taken to Budapest by helicopter after the sludge "burned him to the bone."
The toxic flood overturned Erdelyi's car and pushed it to the back of the garden while her husband's van was lifted up onto a fence. Erdelyi, a seamstress, was hoping the flood spared the shop in town where she worked, her family's main source of income.
In neighbouring Kolontal, the town closest to the aluminum plant, 61-year old widow Erzsebet Veingartner was in her kitchen when the sludge flood hit Monday afternoon.
"I looked outside and all I saw was the stream swelling like a huge wave," said Veingartner, who lives on a monthly disability pension. "Thank God I had the presence of mind to turn off the gas and run up to the attic."
Veingartner, devastated by her losses, looked out at her backyard still covered by red sludge.
"I have a winter's worth of firewood in the basement and it's all useless now," she said. "I lost all my chickens, my ducks, my Rottweiler, and my potato patch. My late husband's tools and machinery were in the shed and it's all gone."
Local environmentalists say they have tried to call the government's attention to the risks of red sludge for years.
"Accumulated during decades ... red sludge is, by volume, the largest amount of toxic waste in Hungary," the Clear Air Action Group said, adding that producing one tonne of alumina resulted in two tonnes of toxic waste.
MAL Rt., the Hungarian Aluminum Production and Trade Company that owns the Ajka plant, said that according to European Union standards, the red sludge was not considered toxic waste.
The company also denied that it should have taken more precautions to shore up the reservoir.
"According to the current evaluation, company management could not have noticed the signs of the natural catastrophe nor done anything to prevent it even while carefully respecting technological procedures," MAL said in a statement.