Boutros Boutros-Ghali, a veteran Egyptian diplomat who helped negotiate his country's landmark peace deal with Israel but then clashed with the United States when he served a single term as United Nations secretary general, has died. He was 93.
Boutros-Ghali, the scion of a prominent Egyptian Christian political family, was the first UN chief from the African continent. He stepped into the post in 1992 at a time of dramatic world changes, with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War and the beginning of a unipolar era dominated by the United States.
But after four years of frictions with the Clinton administration, the United States blocked his renewal in the post in 1996, making him the only UN secretary-general to serve a single term. He was replaced by Ghanaian Kofi Annan.
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The current president of the UN Security Council, Venezuelan Ambassador Rafael Ramirez, announced Boutros-Ghali's death at the start of a session Tuesday on Yemen's humanitarian crisis. The 15 council members stood in a silent tribute.
Current UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said Boutros-Ghali "presided over a dramatic rise in UN peacekeeping."
"He also presided over a time when the world increasingly turned to the United Nations for solutions to its problems, in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War," he said.
Michaëlle Jean, former governor general of Canada and currently the secretary general of the Francophonie, said Boutros-Ghali worked tirelessly for peace in the world, for democracy, for rights and freedoms
Boutros-Ghhali died Tuesday at a Cairo hospital, Egypt's state news agency said. He had been admitted to the hospital after suffering a broken pelvis, the Al-Ahram newspaper reported on Thursday.
Boutros-Ghali's five years in the United Nations remain controversial. Some see him as seeking to establish the UN's independence from the world superpower, the United States. Others blame him for misjudgments in the failures to prevent genocides in Africa and the Balkans and mismanagement of reform in the world body.
In his farewell speech to the UN, Boutros-Ghali said he had thought when he took the post that the time was right for the United Nations to play an effective role in a world no longer divided into warring Cold War camps.
"But the middle years of this half decade were deeply troubled," he said. "Disillusion set in."
Rwanda massacre was 'worst failure'
In a 2005 interview with The Associated Press, Boutros-Ghali called the 1994 massacre in Rwanda — in which half a million Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed in 100 days — "my worst failure at the United Nations."
But he blamed the United States, Britain, France and Belgium for paralyzing action by setting impossible conditions for intervention. Then-U.S. President Bill Clinton and other world leaders were opposed to taking strong action to beef up UN peacekeepers in the tiny Central African nation or intervening to stop the massacres.
"The concept of peacekeeping was turned on its head and worsened by the serious gap between mandates and resources," he told AP.
Boutros-Ghali also came under fire for the July 1995 Serb slaughter of 8,000 Muslims in the UN-declared "safe zone" of Srebrenica in eastern Bosnia just before the end of the war.
In 1999, families of the victims listed Boutros-Ghali as one of the international officials they wanted to sue for responsibility in the deaths.
His legacy was also stained in investigations into corruption in the UN oil-for-food program for Iraq, which he played a large role in creating. Three suspects in the probe were linked to Boutros-Ghali either by family relationship or friendship.
His cousin, Fakhry Abdelnour, is the head of an oil company called AMEP, which was accused of getting oil concessions through the executive director of the oil-for-food program, Benon Sevan.
Angered Clinton administration
Boutros-Ghali frequently took vocal stances that angered the Clinton administration — such as his strong criticism of Israel after the 1996 shelling of UN camp in Lebanon that killed some 100 refugees.
In writings after leaving the UN, he accused Washington of using the world body for its own political purposes and said U.S. officials often tried to directly control his actions.
He wrote in his 1999 book Unvanquished that he "mistakenly assumed that the great powers, especially the United States, also trained their representatives in diplomacy and accepted the value of it. But the Roman Empire had no need for diplomacy. Neither does the United States."
His opponents, in turn, accused him of being too sluggish in pushing UN reforms. Boutros-Ghali blamed slowness in reform on the lack of money and pointed out that the United States was $1.4 billion in arrears on payments.