A new study recommending tolls on Montreal's bridges — and eventually on some of its main autoroutes — has thrust the city's chronic traffic problems back into the spotlight.
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Canada's Ecofiscal Commission, a think-tank headquartered at McGill University, says taxing drivers would encourage more people to use public transit.
Here's a portrait of traffic congestion in Montreal:
Facts and figures
Half of Montrealers spend 60 minutes or more getting to and from work.
46 per cent of Laval workers commute to Montreal.
36 per cent of Longueuil workers commute to Montreal.
Congestion costs the City of Montreal an estimated $1.7 billion annually.
Montreal ranks 14th in North America in terms of traffic congestion, behind only Toronto and Vancouver in Canada.
72 per cent of Montrealers say congestion makes it hard to get around.
Almost a quarter of Montrealers say gridlock is diminishing their quality of life.
18 bridges connect the island of Montreal to the off-island suburbs.
- Two highways already have tolls on their bridges: Autoroutes 25 and 30.
The proposed Train de l'Ouest, which would connect downtown Montreal to Hudson, got backing from prime minister-designate Justin Trudeau during the election campaign.
- Trudeau has also promised to scrap planned tolls on the new $4.2-billion Champlain Bridge.
Sources: Ecofiscal Commission, Chambre de commerce du Montréal métropolitain, TomTom