The Supreme Court of Canada has refused to hear the appeal of Désiré Munyaneza, who was found guilty of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity in connection with the 1994 Rwandan genocide.
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After a two-year trial that concluded in 2009, Munyaneza, who was arrested in Toronto in 2005, became the first person to be convicted in Canada under the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act.
He was found guilty of seven counts of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, and was handed a life sentence without parole eligibility for 25 years.
Munyaneza led a Hutu militia in southern Rwanda during the 1994 genocide, in which nearly 800,000 minority Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed.
He was accused of murdering and raping civilians, and of leading attacks against ethnic Tutsis at the National University of Rwanda during the genocide.
Munyaneza came to Canada in 1997 and was arrested by the RCMP in Toronto after a five-year investigation.