Bloc Québécois Leader Gilles Duceppe called Saturday for a high-speed train between Quebec City and Montreal, and eventually on into Ontario and the United States.
The train would be good for the environment and create jobs, he said in Quebec City.
He called on the federal government to support the idea.
The premiers of Ontario and Quebec launched a study in January to look into the prospects for high-speed train links between major cities such as Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto.
The federal government has agreed to participate in the study, the premiers said.
Duceppe said the Conservatives have rejected the train as too expensive. The figure of $23 billion was mentioned when the premiers announced the study.
He said the federal government has given much more to polluting industries, and "that money has gone up in smoke and greenhouse gas emissions."