Birth of the internet
Last Updated July 25, 2007
The internet was originally conceived for the U.S. military as a means of allowing a community of computers to share information over distance. It's generally accepted that its later development was spurred on as much for research purposes as for military applications.
The body in charge of setting up the network was the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). In 1967, ARPA enlisted the help of the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, Calif., to design the system. Within a year, Stanford researchers had designed a framework, which ARPA contracted out for implementation.
The first two nodes were installed at UCLA and Stanford Research Institute in August of 1969, but it wasn't until two months later that the machines made first contact.
On October 29, 1969, at 10:30 p.m., UCLA engineering professor Leonard Kleinrock and student Charley Kline attempted to send a message from one Honeywell computer to a similar unit 600 kilometres away at Stanford Research Institute in Palo Alto. The connection speed was 50 kb/s.
The first message was supposed to be the word "login," but the system crashed as they typed in the letter "g." The first message, then, was "lo." Although it was a bumpy if not prophetic beginning, the researchers were able to complete the message one hour later.
And so the ARPANET (the term internet was not coined until 1982) was born.
Evolution of the internet
Oct. 29, 1969
The first message (the letters "l" and "o") is sent over ARPANET.
The University of Utah and University of California Santa Barbara now have ARPANET nodes, bringing the worldwide total to four.
ARPANET has grown to 10 nodes and 19 host computers.
The world's first network e-mail system is created.
Hawaii joins ARPANET via the network's first satellite link.
Telenet, the first commercially available version of ARPANET, is introduced by Bolt - Beranek & Newman (BBN).
ARPANET grows to 111 hosts.
A virus temporarily disables ARPANET.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) established as system by which different networks can communicate. These linked networks come to be known as the internet.
ARPANET grows to 1,000 hosts.
All Canadian Universities are now connected to a shared network known as NetNorth.
Canada joins NSFNET, an international backbone of computing centres that enables more network connections.
- the World Wide Web (WWW) is created by Tim Berners-Lee of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN)
- there are 100,000 internet hosts worldwide
- ARPANET ceases to function, giving way to the internet.
- Tim Berners-Lee authors the first browser-editor, called WorldWideWeb. He also authors the communication language of the internet - Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) as well as the standard by which web pages were to be written, known as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).
The first audio and video are broadcast over the internet, which now has one million hosts.
There are 15 million people online worldwide and the CBC's Bill Cameron reports, "The internet is growing like an embryonic brain at a rate of 10 per cent a month."
Netscape releases the beta version of the world's first commercially available web browser - Mozilla 0.96b.
- Sun Microsystems introduces the Java programming language.
- RealAudio is introduced, allowing users to listen to audio over the internet in near-real time.
- ; CBC goes online with its website.
- The Vatican goes online with its home page.
The search engine Google is introduced.
Open Diary, an early blogging service, is launched.
Shawn Fanning launches the online music sharing service Napster, which popularizes peer-to-peer file sharing and draws the ire of the recording industry, which accuses Napster of massive copyright infringement. The original service would be shut down in July 2001.
AOL buys Time Warner for $162 billion US, forming AOL Time Warner in the largest-ever corporate merger.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches a record of 11,722.98. Two months later, the tech-heavy Nasdaq Index also reaches an all-time high, marking the bursting of the dot-com bubble.
- Dave Winer, author of the RSS format, includes a Grateful Dead song in a blog post, demonstrating for the first time what would later be called podcasting.
- The English edition of Wikipedia launches. The online encyclopedia, which invites users to edit and add entries, grows to include approximately 7.8 million entries in 253 languages in 2007.
There are more than 150 million internet hosts and 840 million users worldwide.2003
- Apple launches its iTunes music downloading service.
- Internet company eUniverse (later named Intermix) launches social networking website MySpace. A year later, competing site Facebook launches.
For the first time since its launch, Amazon.com makes its first full-year profit.November 2004
The Mozilla Firefox web browser is launched.February 2005
Youtube.com, a video-sharing website, goes online.November 2005
News Corp., the parent company of Fox, buys MySpace for $580 million US.October 2006
Google Inc. buys YouTube for $1.65 billion US.December 2006
In a nod to the popularity and influence of sites with user-generated content such as Wikipedia, MySpace and YouTube, Time Magazine names "You" the 2006 Person of the Year.June 2007
Total worldwide number of internet users is 1.17 billion, according to InternetWorldStats.com.
- Main page
- Mobiles for kids
- Social network news
- Age of the blog
- Computer worms
- Copyright Q & A
- Copyright & the web
- Downloading music
- Google and YouTube
- Internet seniors
- The past and future of the internet
- Computer security
- Reality check: Will Wi-Fi really fry student brains?
- Wireless security
- CBC Marketplace: Wireless world
- Glossary: Internet speak
- Future music
- Home hackers
- A network called internet (from CBC Archives)
- Archaeology of the internet (from CBC Radio’s Ideas)
- Future music
From Words: Woe & Wonder:
- Growth of high-speed internet boosts e-commerce: StatsCan
- April 16, 2004
- Canada logs second place in internet use
- April 27, 2004
- Internet Society
- Hobbes’ Internet Timeline
- DARPA history
- History of internet
- Log of first communication
- Industry Canada's consumer tips for e-commerce
- Canadian Marketing Association consumer tips
- Canadian Code of Practice for Consumer Protection in Electronic Commerce
- Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
- Uniform Electronic Commerce Act
(Note: CBC does not endorse and is not responsible for the content of external sites - links will open in new window)