The project includes a 13.6 kilometres (8.5 mi) Bosphorus crossing, the upgrade of 63 kilometres (39 mi) of suburban train lines to create a 76.3 km high-capacity line between Gebze and Halkalı and the provision of 440 rail cars.
The Bosphorus (Istanbul Strait) will be crossed by a 1.4 kilometres (0.87 mi)-long earthquake-proofed immersed tube, assembled from 11 sections, each as long as 130 metres (430 ft) and weighing up to 18,000 tons. The sections will be placed down to 60 metres (197 ft) below sea level: 55 metres (180 ft) of water and 4.6 metres (15 ft) of earth. This underwater tube will be accessed by bored tunnels from Kazlıçeşme on the European side and Ayrılıkçeşme on the Asian side of Istanbul. When completed, it will be the world's deepest undersea immersed tube tunnel.


The Marmaray Project
Turkey Building the World's Deepest Immersed Tube Tunnel

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