Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was the founder of the field we now call theoretical physics. In the 1700s, he developed four laws that described everything we knew about motion prior to the 20th century.
Newton's law of gravitation was the first step on a path towards "unification," a single, neat set of mathematical laws describing all physical reality: on Earth, in the solar system and across the cosmos. His laws of motion changed the way we looked at the world - and continue to influence us today.
Newton's discoveries underpinned the Industrial Revolution that transformed the organization of human society, and enabled the development of thousands of modern technologies, from pipelines to planes to satellites.