Introduction
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By the summer of 1776, the American Revolution had grown into a bloody struggle between the United States and Britain.
More than 40,000 American Loyalists found refuge from the American Revolution in Nova Scotia and Quebec. (As portrayed in Canada: A People's History)
More than 40,000 American Loyalists found refuge from the American Revolution in Nova Scotia and Quebec. (As portrayed in Canada: A People's History)

In New York City, a mob celebrated the Declaration of Independence by toppling the statue of King George III and melting it down for musket balls. In Virginia, Governor Dunmore declared martial law and called "upon every person capable of bearing arms to resort to his majesty's standard," while in Philadelphia, the spirit of independence was at fever pitch.

But the Revolution had made as many enemies as friends. Americans were deeply divided between the Rebels who supported the new Continental Congress and Loyalists whose allegiance remained with Britain.

In the countryside, farm communities were torn apart. Loyalists, derogatorily called tories, were tarred and feathered, a ghastly process that sometimes left them scalded.
Hannah Ingraham was 11 years old when her Loyalist family was forced from its farm in Albany County, New York during the American Revolution. (As portrayed in Canada: A People's History)
Hannah Ingraham was 11 years old when her Loyalist family was forced from its farm in Albany County, New York during the American Revolution. (As portrayed in Canada: A People's History)
Beatings and lynchings were commonplace as the rule of law dissolved under patriotic fever. Pathetic wagon trains of women and children moved north.

When her husband had joined the British cause, the rebels branded Mary Munroe and her children "enemies of American liberty." And their farm in Vermont, the work of 20 years, was confiscated.

"I must leave my house... and God knows where I shall find a place to put my head, for my own relations are my greatest enemies. The mills they have in their possession, likewise all you tenants house and lands. You can have no idea of our sufferings here," Munroe wrote to her husband John.

Like thousands of other families, the Munroes paid the price of their loyalty with exile.
Rich, poor, black, white, Indian; before it was over, the American Revolution would make refugees of 100,000 loyalists. And nearly half of them would find refuge in Canada.

Hannah Ingraham was 11 years-old when her family was forced from their farm in Albany County, New York. She'd watched her grandfather taken by the rebels to a prison ship and her father flee to join the British army.

"We had a comfortable farm, plenty of cows and sheep, but when the war began and father joined the redcoats, the rebels took it all away... My father was in the army seven years. Mother was four years without hearing from him whether he was alive or dead. Anyone would be hanged right up if they were caught bringing letters.
Oh they were terrible times," Ingraham wrote.

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