Journalists are still trying to beat back the destabilizing impact of fake news, and now there's a prediction it's going to get tougher for them to convince people to go on the record at all.
The prediction is contained in an article by Ruth Palmer at Harvard University's Nieman Journalism Lab, who's also written the new book Becoming the News: How Ordinary People Respond To the Media Spotlight.
Palmer says after a decade of research, she's concluded social media has dramatically shifted the consequences for people who go public with a story.
"Both the pros and the cons really are magnified," she says.
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Palmer says if a story or quote is picked up by other news outlets, it typically moves to the top of any Google search involving the person's name, "and in some cases, really completely reshape their search results. So they need to take that into account. And that's an important thing, as we continually Google people more."
Palmer also points to online backlash from identifiable and anonymous trolls, saying it can be overwhelming, particularly for those who previously had no significant public profile.
"Studies are finding that minorities and women in particular get very harsh cyber feedback when they speak out about things. And they're more likely to self-censor as a result of it."
But she believes there is a remedy. Palmer says if journalists discuss ahead of time the potential impact of the interview, rather than dissuade people from going on the record, it prepares them for what may come next.
She points to the women who've come forward in recent weeks to make public allegations of sexual assault and harassment against powerful men.
"If they're prepared for cyber blowback, they feel like they're more in control of the situation, and that's very helpful," she says.
Palmer says the imperative of exposing a wrong, usually experienced or deeply felt by the source of the story, will also be more persuasive than the often short-term backlash of speaking out.
"Journalists can emphasize to sources the public good of what they do when they come forward and tell stories about systematic patterns of abuse. I have found that that is an extremely convincing incentive for people, because it's true."
This week on The Investigators: Angus Scott of the St. Catharines Standard and media lawyer Phil Tunley talk about why the seizure of a reporter's computer and notes at a recent regional council meeting violated the journalist's rights.